Natural Nanohydroxyapatite Synthesis via Ultrasonication from Donax Trunculus Bivalve Sea Shells and Production of its Electrospun Nanobiocomposite
AuthorŞahin, Yeşim Müge
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In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bioceramics were prepared via a practical, ultrasonic conversion method from Donax trunculus seashells. These seashells are one of the most common bivalve molluscs of the Mediterranean Sea and can be used as a natural, stable raw material for bioceramic production. Ultrasonication, a powerful method for nano-sized ceramic production, was chosen to synthesize different ceramic phases easily. Raw shells are consisted of calcite and aragonite structures. To synthesize HA and TCP bioceramic materials, first the calcium oxide content of the shells were identified via Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and then a calculated amount of phosphoric acid was added drop by drop to obtain the exact stoichiometry. After synthesis, the resultant bioceramics were sintered at 800-850 degrees C for HA and 400-450 degrees C for TCP phases. For bioceramic phases X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEGSEM) studies were perform. On the other hand, electrospinning method was used to prepare nanobiocomposites from biocompatible polymeric material as the matrix and the obtained natural bioceramics as reinforcer of the composite system. Three different compositions were used and optimum electrospinning conditions were adjusted to prepare these electrospun structures. Biocomposites were evaluated in terms of structure, mechanic, morphology and biology. The effect of bioceramic content was also discussed. It is revealed that the obtained electrospun nanobiocomposites are good candidates for various tissue engineering purposes due to their enhanced biological and mechanical properties.