Assessment of particulate matter in the urban atmosphere: size distribution, metal composition and source characterization using principal component analysis
KünyeOnat, B., Alver Şahin, Ü., Bayat, C. (2012). Assessment of particulate matter in the urban atmosphere: size distribution, metal composition and source characterization using principal component analysis. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 14.5, 1400-1409.
In this study, the size distribution of airborne particles and related heavy metals Co, Cd, Sn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and V in two urban areas in Istanbul: Yenibosna and Goztepe, were examined. The different inhalable particles were collected by using a cascade impactor in eight size fractions (<0.4 μm, 0.4–0.7 μm, 1.1–2.1 μm, 2.1–3.3 μm, 3.3–4.7 μm, 4.7–5.8 μm, 5.8–9 μm and >9 μm) for six months at each station. Samples were collected on glass fiber filters and filters were extracted and analyzed using ICP-MS. Log-normal distributions showed that the particles collected at the Yenibosna site have a smaller size compared to the Goztepe samples and the size distribution of PM was represented the best by the tri-modal. The average total particle concentrations and standard deviations were obtained as 67.7 ± 17.0 μg m−3 and 82.1 ± 21.2 μg m−3, at the Yenibosna and Göztepe sites, respectively. The higher metal rate in fine and medium coarse PM showed that the anthropogenic sources were the most significant pollutant source. Principal component analysis identified five components for PM namely traffic, road dust, coal and fuel oil combustion, and industrial.